Published: Using single-molecule FRET to probe the nucleotide-dependent conformational landscape of Pol β-DNA complexes

C. Fijen, M. Kronenberg, R. Kaup, M. Fontana, J. Towle-Weicksel, J. Sweasy, J. Hohlbein, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 295, 9012–20, 2020, [link], previous bioRxiv preprint: [link]

Eukaryotic DNA polymerase β (Pol β) plays an important role in cellular DNA repair, as it fills short gaps in dsDNA that result from removal of damaged bases. Since defects in DNA repair may lead to cancer and genetic instabilities, Pol β has been extensively studied, especially its mechanisms for substrate binding and a fidelity-related conformational change referred to as “fingers closing.” Here, we applied single-molecule FRET (smFRET) to measure distance changes associated with DNA binding and pre-chemistry fingers movement of human Pol β. First, using a doubly labeled DNA construct, we show that Pol β bends the gapped DNA substrate less than indicated by previously reported crystal structures. Second, using acceptor-labeled Pol β and donor-labeled DNA, we visualized dynamic fingers closing in single Pol β-DNA complexes upon addition of complementary nucleotides and derived rates of conformational changes. We further found that, while incorrect nucleotides are quickly rejected, they nonetheless stabilize the polymerase–DNA complex, suggesting that Pol β, when bound to a lesion, has a strong commitment to nucleotide incorporation and, thus, repair. In summary, the observation and quantification of fingers movement in human Pol β reported here provide new insights into the delicate mechanisms of pre-chemistry nucleotide selection.

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Published: Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of κ‐carrageenan gels investigated via single-particle-tracking fluorescence microscopy

K.J.A. Martens, J. van Duynhoven, and J. Hohlbein, Langmuir, 36, 5502, 2020, [link]

Hydrogels made of the polysaccharide κ-carrageenan are widely used in the food and personal care industry as thickeners or gelling agents. These hydrogels feature dense regions embedded in a coarser bulk network, but the characteristic size and behavior of these regions has remained elusive. Here, we use single-particle-tracking fluorescence microscopy (sptFM) to quantitatively describe κ-carrageenan gels. Infusing fluorescent probes into fully gelated κ-carrageenan hydrogels resulted in two distinct diffusional behaviors. Obstructed self-diffusion of the probes revealed that the coarse network consists of κ-carrageenan strands with a typical diameter of 3.2 ± 0.3 nm leading to a nanoprobe diffusion coefficient of ~1-5∙10^-12 m2/s. In the dense network regions, we found a fraction with a largely decreased diffusion coefficient of ~1∙10^-13 m2/s. We also observed dynamic exchange between these states. The computation of spatial mobility maps from diffusional data indicated that the dense network regions have a characteristic diameter of ~1 µm and are itself mobile on the seconds-to-minutes timescale. sptFM provides an unprecedented view on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrogel networks, which we believe bears general relevance for understanding transport and release of both low- and high molecular weight solutes.

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Pre-print: Analyzing engineered point spread functions using phasor-based single-molecule localization microscopy

K.J.A. Martens, A. Jabermoradi, S. Yang, and J. Hohlbein, bioRxiv, 2020, [link]

The point spread function (PSF) of single molecule emitters can be engineered in the Fourier plane to encode three-dimensional localization information, creating double-helix, saddle-point or tetra-pod PSFs. Here, we describe and assess adaptations of the phasor-based single-molecule localization microscopy (pSMLM) algorithm to localize single molecules using these PSFs with sub-pixel accuracy. For double-helix, pSMLM identifies the two individual lobes and uses their relative rotation for obtaining z-resolved localizations, while for saddle-point or tetra-pod, a novel phasor-based deconvolution approach is used. The pSMLM software package delivers similar precision and recall rates to the best-in-class software package (SMAP) at signal-to-noise ratios typical for organic fluorophores. pSMLM substantially improves the localization rate by a factor of 2 – 4x on a standard CPU, with 1-1.5·104 (double-helix) or 2.5·105 (saddle-point/tetra-pod) localizations/second.

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News: Welcome to Mariska Brüls and Dani Kortekaas

With Mariska, the third PhD student in our NWO funded LocalBioFood project on super-resolution based localisation of biomolecules at food-related interfaces has started. Mariska started her PhD thesis in the Voets lab in Eindhoven and will relocate to our lab in early 2022.

Dani started his BSc thesis in the lab during Covid-19 times. He will look into improving our computational workflow for single-particle tracking in live cells.

News: Welcome to Ezra Bekkering

Ezra just started his BSc thesis in a new project together with the Laboratory of Microbiology (Wen Wu & Dr. Raymond Staals). He will work on visualising CRISPR-Cas interactions in live bacteria using sptPALM.

Publication: Direct visualization of native CRISPR target search in live bacteria reveals Cascade DNA surveillance mechanism

J.N.A. Vink, K.J.A. Martens, M. Vlot, R.E. McKenzie, C. Almendros, B. Estrada Bonilla, D.J.W. Brocken, J. Hohlbein, S.J.J. Brouns, Molecular Cell, 77, 39-50.e10, 2020, [link], preprint here [link]

CRISPR-Cas systems encode RNA-guided surveil-lance complexes to find and cleave invading DNA elements. While it is thought that invaders are neutralized minutes after cell entry, the mechanism andkinetics of target search and its impact on CRISPRprotection levels have remained unknown. Here, wevisualize individual Cascade complexes in a native type I CRISPR-Cas system. We uncover an exponential relation between Cascade copy number and CRISPR interference levels, pointing to a time-driven arms race between invader replication and target search, in which 20 Cascade complexes provide 50% protection. Driven by PAM-interacting subunitCas8e, Cascade spends half its search time rapidly probing DNA (30 ms) in the nucleoid. We further demonstrate that target DNA transcription and CRISPR arrays affect the integrity of Cascade and affect CRISPR interference. Our work establishes the mechanism of cellular DNA surveillance by Cascade that allows the timely detection of invading DNA in a crowded, DNA-packed environment.

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Published: Substrate conformational dynamics facilitate structure-specific recognition of gapped DNA by DNA polymerase

T.D. Craggs, M. Sustarsic, A. Plochowietz, M. Mosayebi, H. Kaju, A. Cuthbert, J. Hohlbein, L. Domicevica, P.C. Biggin, J.P. K. Doye, A.N. Kapanidis, Nucleic Acid Research, 47, 10788, 2019, [link]

DNA-binding proteins utilise different recognition mechanisms to locate their DNA targets; some proteins recognise specific DNA sequences, while others interact with specific DNA structures. While sequence-specific DNA binding has been studied extensively, structure-specific recognition mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we study structure-specific DNA recognition by examining the structure and dynamics of DNA polymerase I Klenow Fragment (Pol) substrates both alone and in DNA–Pol complexes. Using a docking approach based on a network of 73 distances collected using single-molecule FRET, we determined a novel solution structure of the single-nucleotide-gapped DNA–Pol binary complex. The structure resembled existing crystal structures with regards to the downstream primer-template DNA substrate, and revealed a previously unobserved sharp bend (∼120°) in the DNA substrate; this pronounced bend was present in living cells. MD simulations and single-molecule assays also revealed that 4–5 nt of downstream gap-proximal DNA are unwound in the binary complex. Further, experiments and coarse-grained modelling showed the substrate alone frequently adopts bent conformations with 1–2 nt fraying around the gap, suggesting a mechanism wherein Pol recognises a pre-bent, partially-melted conformation of gapped DNA. We propose a general mechanism for substrate recognition by structure-specific enzymes driven by protein sensing of the conformational dynamics of their DNA substrates.

 

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News: Welcome to Šarūnė Ivanovaitė and Elmar van der Wijk

Šarūnė recently started her Erasmus+ internship in the group. She will characterise a variety of fluidic devices that we got our hands on including devices for high throughput smFRET screening, trapping of bacteria and establishing DNA curtains. Elmar started his MSc thesis and will utilise new DNA constructs for smFRET based studies of ARF transcription factor binding.

Publication: Visualisation of dCas9 target search in vivo using an open-microscopy framework

K.J.A. Martens, S. van Beljouw, S. van der Els, J.N.A. Vink, S. Baas, G.A. Vogelaar, S.J.J. Brouns, P. van Baarlen, M. Kleerebezem, J. Hohlbein, Nature Communications, 10, 3552, 2019, [link]

CRISPR-Cas9 is widely used in genomic editing, but the kinetics of target search and its relation to the cellular concentration of Cas9 have remained elusive. Effective target search requires constant screening of the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and a 30 ms upper limit for screening was recently found. To further quantify the rapid switching between DNA-bound and freely-diffusing states of dCas9, we developed an open-microscopy framework, the miCube, and introduce Monte-Carlo diffusion distribution analysis (MC-DDA). Our analysis reveals that dCas9 is screening PAMs 40% of the time in Gram-positive Lactoccous lactis, averaging 17 ± 4 ms per binding event. Using heterogeneous dCas9 expression, we determine the number of cellular target-containing plasmids and derive the copy number dependent Cas9 cleavage. Furthermore, we show that dCas9 is not irreversibly bound to target sites but can still interfere with plasmid replication. Taken together, our quantitative data facilitates further optimization of the CRISPR-Cas toolbox.

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