Pre-print: Direct visualization of native CRISPR target search in live bacteria reveals Cascade DNA surveillance mechanism

J.N.A. Vink, K.J.A. Martens, M. Vlot, R.E. McKenzie, C. Almendros, B. Estrada Bonilla, D.J.W. Brocken, J. Hohlbein, S.J.J. Brouns, bioRxiv, 2019, [link]

CRISPR-Cas systems encode RNA-guided surveillance complexes to find and cleave invading DNA elements. While it is thought that invaders are neutralized minutes after cell entry, the mechanism and kinetics of target search and its impact on CRISPR protection levels have remained unknown. Here we visualized individual Cascade complexes in a native type I CRISPR-Cas system. We uncovered an exponential relationship between Cascade copy number and CRISPR interferen2019_Vink_bioRxivce levels, pointing to a time-driven arms race between invader replication and target search, in which 20 Cascade complexes provide 50% protection. Driven by PAM-interacting subunit Cas8e, Cascade spends half its search time rapidly probing DNA (∼30 ms) in the nucleoid. We further demonstrate that target DNA transcription and CRISPR arrays affect the integrity of Cascade and impact CRISPR interference. Our work establishes the mechanism of cellular DNA surveillance by Cascade that allows the timely detection of invading DNA in a crowded, DNA-packed environment.

Posted in open access, pre-print

Published: Evaluating single-particle tracking by photo-activation localization microscopy (sptPALM) in Lactococcus lactis

S.P.B. van Beljouw, S. van der Els, K.J. A. Martens, M. Kleerebezem, P.A. Bron, J. Hohlbein, Physical Biology, 16, 035001, 2019, [link]

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are frequently used in food fermentation and are invaluable for the taste and nutritional value of the fermentation end-product. To gain a better understanding of underlying biochemical and microbiological mechanisms and cell-to-cell variability in LABs, single-molecule techniques such as single-particle tracking photo-activation localization microscopy (sptPALM) hold great promises but are not yet employed due to the lack of detailed protocols and suitable assays.

Here, we qualitatively test various fluorescent proteins including variants that are photoactivatable and therefore suitable for sptPALM measurements in Lactococcus lactis, a key LAB for the dairy industry. In particular, we fused PAmCherry2 to dCas9 allowing the successful tracking of single dCas9 proteins, whilst the dCas9 chimeras bound to specific guide RNAs retained their gene silencing ability in vivo. The diffusional information of the dCas9 without any targets showed different mechanistic states of dCas9: freely diffusing, bound to DNA, or transiently interacting with DNA. The capability of performing sptPALM with dCas9 in L. lactis can lead to a better, general understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems as well as paving the way for CRISPR-Cas based interrogations of cellular functions in LABs.

screenshot 2019-01-24 at 09.23.00

 

Posted in published

News: Welcome to Suyeon Yang and George Vogelaar

Suyeon joined the group in November 2018 for her PhD thesis. She will study lipid oxidation at oil/water interfaces using super-resolution microscopy. George just started his MSc thesis to study diffusion of dCas9 in Lactococcus lactis using single-particle tracking PALM.

Posted in news

Published: High-throughput, non-equilibrium studies of single biomolecules using glass made nanofluidic devices

M. Fontana, C. Fijen, S. G. Lemay, K. Mathwig and J. Hohlbein, Lab on a Chip, 19, 79, 2019. [link]

Single-molecule detection schemes offer powerful means to overcome static and dynamic heterogeneity inherent to complex samples. However, probing biomolecular interactions and reactions with high throughput and time resolution remains challenging, often requiring surface-immobilized entities. Here, we introduce glass-made nanofluidic devices for the high-throughput detection of freely-diffusing single biomolecules by camera-based fluorescence microscopy. Nanochannels of 200 nm height confine the movement of biomolecules. Using pressure-driven flow through an array of parallel nanochannels and by tracking the movement of fluorescently labelled DNA oligonucleotides, we observe conformational changes with high throughput. In a device geometry featuring a T-shaped junction of nanochannels, we drive steady-state non-equilibrium conditions by continuously mixing reactants and triggering chemical reactions. We use the device to probe the conformational equilibrium of a DNA hairpin as well as to continuously observing DNA synthesis in real time. Our platform offers a straightforward and robust method for studying reaction kinetics at the single-molecule level.

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Posted in published

Pre-print: An open microscopy framework suited for tracking dCas9 in live bacteria

K.J.A. Martens, S. van Beljouw, S. van der Els, S. Baas, J.N.A. Vink, S.J.J. Brouns, P. van Baarlen, M. Kleerebezem, J. Hohlbein, bioRxiv, 2018 [link]

Super-resolution microscopy is frequently employed in the life sciences, but the number of freely accessible and affordable microscopy frameworks, especially for single particle tracking photo-activation localization microscopy (sptPALM), remains limited. To this end, we designed the miCube: a versatile super-resolution capable fluorescence microscope, which combines high spatiotemporal resolution, good adaptability, low price, and easy installation. By providing all details, we hope to enable interested researchers to build an identical or derivative instrument. The capabilities of the miCube are assessed with a novel sptPALM assay relying on the heterogeneous expression of target genes. Here, we elucidate mechanistic details of catalytically inactive Cas9 (dead Cas9) in live Lactococcus lactis. We show that, lacking specific DNA target sites, the binding and unbinding of dCas9 to DNA can be described using simplified rate constants of kbound_free = 30 – 80 s-1 and kfree_bound = 15 – 40 s-1. Moreover, after providing specific DNA target sites via DNA plasmids, the plasmid-bound dCas9 population size decreases with increasing dCas9 copy number via a mono-exponential decay, indicative of simple disassociation kinetics.

Posted in open access, pre-print

Published: Precision and accuracy of single-molecule FRET measurements—a multi-laboratory benchmark study

B. Hellenkamp, S. Schmid, O. Doroshenko, O. Opanasyuk, R. Kühnemuth, S. Rezaei Adariani, B. Ambrose, M. Aznauryan, A. Barth, V. Birkedal, M.E. Bowen, H. Chen, T. Cordes, T. Eilert, C. Fijen, C. Gebhardt, M. Götz, G. Gouridis, E. Gratton, T. Ha, P. Hao, C.A. Hanke, A. Hartmann, J. Hendrix, L.L. Hildebrandt, V. Hirschfeld, J. Hohlbein, B.g Hua, C.G. Hübner, E. Kallis, A.N. Kapanidis, J.Y. Kim, G. Krainer, D.C. Lamb, N.K. Lee, E.A. Lemke, B. Levesque, M. Levitus, J.J. McCann, N. Naredi-Rainer, D. Nettels, T. Ngo, R. Qiu, N.C. Robb, C. Röcker, H. Sanabria, M. Schlierf, T. Schröder, B. Schuler, H. Seidel, L. Streit, J. Thurn, P. Tinnefeld, S. Tyagi, N. Vandenberk, A. Manuel Vera, K.R. Weninger, B. Wünsch, I.S. Yanez-Orozco, J. Michaelis, C.A.M. Seidel, T.D. Craggs, T. Hugel, Nature Methods, 15, 669, 2018, [link], preprint on arXiv: [link]

Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is increasingly being used to determine distances, structures, and dynamics of biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. However, generalized protocols and FRET standards to ensure the reproducibility and accuracy of measurements of FRET efficiencies are currently lacking. Here we report the results of a comparative blind study in which 20 labs determined the FRET efficiencies (E) of several dye-labeled DNA duplexes. Using a unified, straightforward method, we obtained FRET efficiencies with s.d. between ± 0.02 and ± 0.05. We suggest experimental and computational procedures for converting FRET efficiencies into accurate distances, and discuss potential uncertainties in the experiment and the modeling. Our quantitative assessment of the reproducibility of intensity-based smFRET measurements and a unified correction procedure represents an important step toward the validation of distance networks, with the ultimate aim of achieving reliable structural models of biomolecular systems by smFRET-based hybrid methods.

Posted in accepted, open access, pre-print

News: The miCube moved to Github

Our open (single-molecule) microscopy project, the #miCube, is now on Github [link]!  The page shows a detailed and updated overview of the components, some information on phasor-based SMLM, and many links to similar open hardware projects.

 

Posted in miCube, news